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2016年专四真题及参考答案


TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2016)

GRADE FOUR

TIME LIMIT: 130 MIN

PART I   DICTATION [10 MIN]

Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. During the first reading, which will be done at normal speed, listen and try to understand the meaning. For the second and third readings, the passage will be read sentence by sentence, or phrase by phrase, with intervals of 15 seconds. The last reading will be done at normal speed again and during this time you should check your work. You will then be given 2 minutes to check through your work once more.

 

Please write the whole passage on ANSWER SHEET ONE.

 

PART II   LISTENING COMPREHENSION [20 MIN]

 

SECTION A   TALK

 

In this section you will hear a talk. You will hear the talk ONCE ONLY. While listening, you may look at the task on the ANSWER SHEETONE and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap. Make sure what you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable. You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.

 

You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.

 

Now, listen to the talk. When it is over, you will be given TWO minutes to check your work.

 

SECTION B   CONVERSATIONS

 

In this section, you will hear two conversations. At the end of the conversion, five questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken ONCE ONLY. After each question there will be a ten-second pause. During the pause, you should read the four choices of A, B, C and D, and mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

 

You have THIRTY seconds to preview the questions.

 

Now, listen to the conversations.

 

Conversation One

Questions 1 to 5 are based on Conversation One.

 

1.  A. To tell the man that he has been shortlisted for interview.

B. To ask the man a few questions about his interview.

C. To tell the man the procedure of the interview.

D. To explain to the man how to make a presentation.

 

2.  A. Questions related to the job.

B. General questions about himself.

C. Specific questions about his CV.

D. Questions about his future plan.

 

3.  A. Questions from the interviewers.

B. Questions from the interviewee.

C. Presentation from the interviewee.

D. Requests from the interviewee.

 

4.  A. Educational and professional background.

B. Problems he has faced and solved.

C. Major successes in his career so far.

D. Company future and his contribution.

 

5.  A. 11 a.m., next Tuesday.

B. 11 a.m., next Thursday.

C. 9 a.m., this Tuesday.

D. 9 a.m., this Thursday.

 

Conversation Two

Questions 6 to 10 are based on Conversation Two.

 

6.  A. How college students pay for their education.

B. How to handle the problem of college loans.

C. The disadvantage of college loans.

D. Government financing in college education.

 

7.  A. It has increased by 6 to 8%.

B. It has increased by 8 to 10%.

C. It has decreased by 6 to 8%.

D. It has decreased by 8 to 10%.

 

8.  A. Students family income.

B. First year salary after graduation.

C. A fixed amount of 30, 000 dollars.

D. Payment in the next ten years.

 

9.  A. Students can borrow money first.

B. Students pay no tax on savings.

C. Students pay less tax after graduation.

D. Students withdraw without paying tax.

 

10.  A. Giving up charitable or volunteer work.

B. Neglecting their study at college.

C. Giving up further education.

D. Neglecting high salary in job-seeking.

 

PART III   LANGUAGE USAGE             [10 MIN]

 

There are twenty sentences in this section. Beneath each sentence there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet Two.

 

11. How can I concentrate if you __________ continually __________ me with silly questions?

A. have interrupted    

B. had interrupted    

C. are interrupting    

D. were interrupting

 

12. Among the four sentences below, Sentence __________ express the highest degree of possibility.

A. It may take a long time to find a solution to the problem.

B. It might take a long time to find a solution to the problem.  

C. It could take a long time to find a solution to the problem.  

D. It should take a long time to find a solution to the problem.

 

13. She is a better speaker than __________ in the class.

A. all the girls

B. the other boys

C. other any girl

D. any boy

 

14. Nobody heard him sing, __________?

A. did they

B. did he

C. didnt they

D. did one

 

15. I cant put up with __________.

A. that friend of you    

B. that friend of yours  

C. the friend of you  

D. the friend of yours

 

16. There has been an increasing number of __________ in primary schools in past few years.

A. man teacher

B. men teacher

C. man teachers

D. men teachers

 

17. This is one of the issues that deserve __________.

A. mentioning

B. being mentioned

C. to mention

D. for mention

 

18. The audience __________ excited on seeing__________ favorite star glide onto the stage.

A. were its

B. were their

C. was their

D. was ones

 

19. __________ your advice, I would have made the wrong decision.

A. Hadnt it been for

B. Had it not been for

C. Had it been for

D. Had not it been for

 

20. The sentence I wish I had been more careful in spending money express the speakers __________.

A. hope

B. joy

C. regret

D. relief

 

21. The Attorney General ordered a federal autopsy of Browns body, seeking to __________ the family and community there would be a thorough investigation into his death.

A. ensure

B. assure

C. insure

D. ascertain

 

22. The police department came under strong criticism for both the death of an unarmed and its handling of the __________.

A. consequence

B. outcome

C. result

D. aftermath

 

23. The Foreign Secretary tried to __________ doubts about his handling of the crisis.

A. dispel

B. expel

C. repel

D. quell

 

24. Mutual funds are thus best for investors who dont want to take the time to study stocks in detail or who __________ the resources to build a portfolio.

A. deprive

B. lack

C. yearn

D. attain

 

25. Chris ran __________ John at a sporting-goods trade show and the two quickly struck __________ an easy rapport.

A. intoup  

B. oninto    

C. acrosson  

D. againstinto

 

26. Im leaving the country soon, he told a __________ convened group of reporters.

A. especially  

B. particularly  

C. specially  

D. specifically

27. Israel and Hamas had reached a deal on extending the __________ ceasefire by an extra 24 hours until Tuesday at midnight.

A. contemporary    

B. makeshift  

C. spontaneous  

D. temporary

 

28. __________ to unplugging the alarm clock and trusting your ability to wake on time on your own, you should probably ease yourself into the new arrangement by keeping a very regular schedule for several weeks.

A. Due      

B. Prior

C. Related    

D. Thanks

 

29. If you are an athlete, strong abdominal muscles help you ensure a strong back and freedom from injury during __________upper-body movement.

A. valiant  

B. variable  

C. vigorous  

D. vigilant

 

30. Finning is a cruel __________ in which the sharks fins are lopped off, and the live shark is thrown back to sea.

A. reality  

B. truth  

C. skill  

D. practice

 

PART IV   CLOZE [10 MIN]

 

Decide which of the words given in the box below would best complete the passage if inserted in the corresponding blank. The words can be used ONCE ONLY. Mark the letter for each word on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

A. ample     B. combinations  C. directly          D. disseminated    E. generations

F. genuinely  G. instead       H. lists             I. promulgated     J. publicized

K. scant      L. shaped       M. sophisticated     N. transplanted     O. virtual

 

Imagine a world without writing. Obviously there would be no books: no novels, no encyclopedias, no cookbooks, no textbooks, no telephone books, no scriptures, no diaries, no travel guides. There would be no ball-points, no typeswriters, no computers, no Internet, no magazines, no movie credits, no shopping lists, no newspapers, no tax returns. But such __________ (31) of subjects almost miss the point. The world we live in has been indelibly marked by the written word, __________ (32) by the technology of writing over thousands of years. Ancient kings proclaimed their authority and __________ (33) their laws in writing. Scribes administered great empires by writing, their knowledge of recording and retrieving information essential to governing complex societies. Religious traditions were passed on through __________ (34), and spread to others, in writing. Scientific and technological progress was achieved and __________ (35) through writing. Accounts in trade and commerce could be kept because of writing. Nearly every step of civilization has been mediated through writing. A world without writing would bear __________ (36) resemblance to the one we now live in. Writing is a __________ (37) necessity to the societies anthropologists call civilizations. A civilization is distinguished from other societies by the complexity of its social organization, by its construction of cities and large public buildings, and by the economic specialization of its members, many of whom are not __________ (38) involved in food procurement or production. A civilization, with its taxation and tribute systems, its trade, and its public works, requires a __________ (39) system of record keeping. And so the early civilizations of Egypt, China, and (probably) India all developed a system of writing. Only the Peruvian civilization of the Incas and their predecessors did not use writing but __________ (40) invented a system of keeping records on knotted color-coded strings known as quipu.  

 

 

 

PART V   READING COMPREHENSION  [35 MIN]

 

SECTION A MUTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

In this section there are three passages followed by ten multiple choice questions. For each multiple choice question, there are four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the best answer. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

 

PASSAGE ONE

(1) When I was twenty-seven years old, I was a mining-brokers clerk in San Francisco, and an expert in all the details of stock traffic, I was alone in the world, and had nothing to depend upon but my wits and a clean reputation; but these were setting my feet in the road to eventual fortune, and I was content with the prospect. My time was my own after the afternoon board, Saturdays, and I was accustomed to putting it in on a little sail-boat on the bay. One day I ventured too far, and was carried out to sea. Just at nightfall, when hope was about gone, I was picked up by a small ship which was bound for London. It was a long and stormy voyage, and they made me work my passage without pay, as a common sailor. When I stepped ashore in London my clothes were ragged and shabby, and I had only a dollar in my pocket. This money fed and sheltered me twenty-four hours. During the next twenty-four I went without food and shelter.

(2) About ten oclock on the following morning, dirty and hungry, I was dragging myself along Portland Place, when a child that was passing, towed by a nurse-maid, tossed a big pear——minus one bite——into the gutter. I stopped, of course, and fastened my desiring eye on that muddy treasure. My mouth watered for it, my stomach craved it, my whole being begged for it. But every time I made a move to get it some passing eye detected my purpose, and of course I straightened up then, and looked indifferent and pretended that I hadnt been thinking about the pear at all. This same thing kept happening and happening, and I couldnt get the pear.

(3) I was just getting desperate enough to brave all the shame, and to seize it, when a window behind me was raised, and a gentleman spoke out of it, saying:  Step in here, please.

(4) I was admitted by a man servant, and shown into a sumptuous room where a couple of elderly gentlemen were sitting. They sent away the servant, and made me sit down. They had just finished their breakfast, and the sight of the remains of it almost overpowered me. I could hardly keep my wits together in the presence of that food, but as I was not asked to sample it, I had to bear my trouble as best as I could.

(5) Now, something had been happening there a little before, which I did not know anything about until a good many days afterwards, but I will tell you about it now. Those two old brothers had been having a pretty hot argument a couple of days before, and had ended by agreeing to decide it by a bet, which is the English way of settling everything.

(6) You will remember that the Bank of England once issued two notes of a million pounds each, to be used for a special purpose connected with some public transaction with a foreign country. For some reason or other only one of these had been used and canceled; the other still lay in the vaults of the Bank. Well, the brothers, chatting along, happened to get to wondering what might be the fate of a perfectly honest and intelligent stranger who should be turned adrift in London without a friend, and with no money but that million-pound bank-note, and no way to account for his being in possession of it. Brother A said he would starve to death; Brother B said he wouldnt. Brother A said he couldnt offer it at a bank or anywhere else, because he would be arrested on the spot. So they went on disputing till Brother B said he would bet twenty thousand pounds that the man would live thirty days, anyway, on that million, and keep out of jail, too. Brother A took him up. Brother B went down to the Bank and bought that note. Then he dictated a letter, which one of his clerks wrote out in a beautiful round hand, and then the two brothers sat at the window a whole day watching for the right man to give it to.

(7) I finally became the pick of it.

 

41. In Para. 1, the phrase set my feet probably means __________.

A. put me aside

B. start my journey

C. prepare me

D. let me walk

 

42. It can be concluded from Para. 2 that __________.

A. the man wanted to maintain dignity though starved

B. the man could not get a proper chance to eat the pear

C. The man did not really want the pear since it was dirty

D. it was very difficult for the man to get the pear

 

43. Compared with Brother A, Brother B was more __________ towards the effect of the  

one-million-pound bank-note on a total strange.

A. neutral

B. negative

C. reserved

D. positive

 

PASSAGE TWO

(1) The concept of peace is a very important one in cultures all over the world. Think about how we greet people. In some language, the phrases for greetings contain the word for peace. In some cultures we greet people by shaking hands or with another gesture to show that we are not carrying weapons --- that we come in peace. And there are certain symbols which people in very different cultures recognize as representing peace. Lets look at a few of them.

The dove

(2) The dove has been a symbol of peace and innocence for thousands of years in many different cultures. In ancient Greek mythology it was a symbol of love and the renewal of life. In ancient Japan a dove carrying a sword symbolized the end of war.

(3) There was a tradition in Europe that if dove flew around a house where someone was dying then their soul would be at peace. And there are legends which say that devil can turn himself into any bird except for a dove. In Christian art, the dove was used to symbolized the Holy Ghost and was often painted above Christs head.

(4) But it was Pablo Picasso who made the dove a modern symbol of peace when he used it on a poster for the World Peace Congress in 1949.

The rainbow

(5) The rainbow is another ancient and universal symbol, often representing the connection between human beings and their gods. In Greek mythology it was associated with Iris, the goddess who brought messages from the gods on Mount Olympus. In Scandinavian mythology the rainbow was a bridge between the gods and the earth. In the Bible a rainbow showed Noah that the Biblical flood was finally over, and that God had forgiven his people. In the Chinese tradition, the rainbow is a common symbol for marriage because the colours represent the union of yin and yang. Nowadays the rainbow is used by many popular movements for peace and the environment, representing the possibility of a better world in the future and promising sunshine after rain.

Mistletoe

(6) This plant was sacred in many cultures, generally representing peace and love. Most people know of the tradition of kissing under the mistletoe at Christmas time, which probably comes from Scandinavian mythology. The goddess Freyas son was killed by an arrow made of mistletoe, so, in honour of him, she declared that it would always be a symbol of peace. It was often hung in doorways as a sign of friendship.

(7) The ancient Druids believed that hanging mistletoe in your doorway could protect you from evil spirits. Tribes would stop fighting for a period of time if they found a tree with mistletoe. But you will never see mistletoe in a Christian church - it is banned because of its associations with pagan religion and superstition.

The olive branch

(8) The olive tree has always been a valuable source of food and oil. In Greek mythology, the goddess Athena gave the olive tree to the people of Athens, who showed their gratitude by naming the city after her. But no one knows for sure when or why it began to symbolize peace. There is probably a connection with ancient Greece. Wars between states were suspended during the Olympics Games, and the winners were given crowns of olive branches. The symbolism may come from the fact that the olive tree takes a long time to produce fruit, so olives could only be cultivated successfully in long periods of peace. Whatever the history, the olive branch is a part of many modern flags symbolizing peace and unity. One well-known example is the United Nations symbol.

The ankh

(9) The ankh is an ancient symbol which was adopted by the hippie movement in the 1960s to represent peace and love. It was found in many Asian cultures, but is generally associated with ancient Egypt. It represented life and immortality. Egyptians were buried with an ankh, so that they could continue to live in the afterworld. The symbol was also found along the sides of the Nile, which gave life to the people. They believed that the ankh could control the flow of the river and make sure that there was always enough water.

 

44. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

A. Concept of Peace.

B. Origin of Peace Symbols.

C. Popular Peace Symbols.

D. Cultural Difference of Peace.

 

45. The rainbow represents the connection between human beings and their gods in all the

following countries EXCEPT __________.

A. Sweden

B. Greece

C. Finland

D. China

 

46. In North Europe mistletoe was often hung in doorways to indicate __________.

A. friendship

B. love

C. kinship

D. honour

 

47. The origin of the ankh can date back to __________.

A. the Nile

B. the afterword

C. the hippie movement

D. ancient Egypt  

 

PASSAGE THREE   

(1) Two sides almost never change: That you can manipulate people into self-sufficiency and that you can punish them into good citizenship.

(2) The first manifests itself in our tireless search for the magical level at which welfare grants are big enough to meet basic needs but small enough to make low-paid work attractive. The second has us looking to the criminal justice system to cure behavior that is as much as anything the result of despair.

(3) The welfare example is well known. We dont want poor people to live in squalor or their children to be malnourished. But we also dont want to subsidize the indolence of people who are too lazy to work. The first impulse leads us to provide housing, food stamps, medical care and a cash stipend for families in need. The second gets us to think about workforce.

(4) Weve been thinking about it for two reasons: the nanny problems of two high-ranking government officials (who hired undocumented foreigners as household helpers, presumably because they couldnt find Americans to do the work) and President Clintons proposal to put a two-year limit on welfare.

(5) Maybe something useful will come of Clintons idea, but Im not all that hopeful. It looks to me like one more example of trying to manipulate people into taking care of themselves.

(6) On the criminal justice side, we hope to make punishment tough enough to discourage crime but not so tough as to clog our prisons with relatively minor offenders. Too short a sentence, we fear, will create contempt for the law. Too long a sentence will take up costly space better used for the violent and unremorseful.

(7) Not only can we never find the perfect punishment, our search for optimum penalties is complicated by our desire for fairness: to let the punishment fit the crime. The problem is that almost any punishment --- even the disgrace of being charged with a crime --- is sufficient to deter the middle class, while for members of the underclass, probation may be translated as I beat it.

(8) So how can you use the system --- welfare or criminal justice --- to produce the behavior we want? The answer, I suspect is: You cant.

(9) We keep trying to use welfare and prison to change people --- to make them think and behave the way we do --- when the truth is the incentives work only for those who already think the way we do: who view todays action with an eye on the future.

(10) We will take lowly work (if that is all thats available) because we believe we can make bad jobs work for us. We avoid crime not because we are better people but because we see getting caught as a future-wrecking disaster. We are guided by a belief that good things will happen for us in the future if we take proper care of the present. Even under the worst of circumstances, we believe we are in control of our lives.

(11) And we have trouble understanding that not everybody believes as we believe. The welfare rolls, the prison and the mean street of our cities are full of people who have given up on their future. Without hope for the future, hard work at a low-paid job makes no sense. Working hard in school, or pleasing a boss, or avoiding pregnancy makes no sense. The deadly disease is hopelessness. The lawlessness and poverty are only the obvious symptoms.

(12) Im not advocating that we stop looking for incentives to move poor people toward self-sufficiency or that we stop punishing people for criminal behavior. There will always be some people who need help and some who deserve to be in jail.

(13) All Im saying is that the long-term answer both to welfare and the crime that plagues our communities is not to fine tune the welfare and criminal justice systems but to prevent our children from getting the disease of despair.

(14) If we encourage our young people to believe in the future, and give them solid evidence for believing, well find both crime and poverty shrinking to manageable proportions.

 

48. What is the authors attitude towards Clintons proposal to welfare?

A. Pessimistic.

B. Optimistic.

C. Suspicious.

D. Sarcastic.

 

49. It can be inferred from Para. 7 that optimum penalties are __________ to the underclass.

A. useless

B. hopeless

C. frightening

D. humiliating

 

50. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage?

A. Lawlessness and Poverty.

B. Criminal Justice System.

C. Welfare Grants.

D. Disease of Despair.

 

SECTION B   SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

In this section, there are five short answer questions based on the passages in Section A. Answer the questions with NO more than TEN words in the space provided on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

 

PASSAGE ONE

51. In Para. 4, what does the man mean by saying I had to bear my trouble?

52. What can be inferred from the last sentence of the passage?

 

PASSAGE TWO

53. Why does the UN use the olive branch in its symbol?

 

PASSAGE THREE

54. According to the author, what balance should we keep in welfare?

55. What does the author mean by saying Even under the worst of circumstances, we believe  

we are in control of our lives (Para. 10)?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART VI   WRITING [45 MIN]

 

Read carefully the following excerpt on term-time holiday arguments in the UK, and then write your response in NO LESS THAN 200 words, in which you should:

·summarize the main message of the excerpt, and then

·comment on whether parents should take children out of school for holiday during term  

time in order to save money.

 

You should support yourself with information from the excerpt.

 

Marks will be awarded for content relevance, content sufficiency, organization and language quality. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE END—

 

 

  A. The kind of people suitable for the trip.

B. Interests and hobbies of the speakers.

C. Recruitment of people for the trip.

D. Preparation for the trip to Mars.

.....

 

Conversation Two

 

Write your response on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

 

—— THE END ——

 

 

 

ANSWER SHEET 1(反面)

 

PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION

 

What is Grit?

 

My questions

Why isn’t I.Q. the only difference between students?

   What is the key to(1) ______?                                          (1)______

 

My Research

investigation of all kinds of (2)______: including:                          (2)______

West Point Military Academy

(3) _______                                                      (3)______

— private companies

 

My finding: grit as predictor of success

   Grit is(4) ______ for a very long-term goals                                (4)______

   Grit is working hard for years to make (5)______                            (5)______

Grit is living your life like a(6) _____                                        (6)______

 

My survey

   High school juniors took grit questionnaires

 (7)______ kids were more likely to graduate                                 (7)_____

 

Grit-building

little is known about how to build grit in students

data show grit is unrelated to (8)_______                                    (8)____

growth mindset is the belief that the ability to learn is (9) _______                (9)____

kids with grit believe failure is(10) ______                                     (10)____

 

Conclusion

We need to be gritty about getting our kinds grittier.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEM 4 SCRIPT

PARTDICTATION                                             

 

Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. During the first reading, which will be done at normal speed, listen and try to understand the meaning. For the second and third readings, the passage will be read sentence by sentence, or phrase by phrase, with intervals of 15 seconds. The last reading will be done at normal speed again and during this time you should check your work. You will then be given 1 minute to check through your work once more. Please write the whole passage on ANSWER SHEET ONE.

 

Now listen to the passage.

 

Are you confident or insecure in a difficult situation?

Do you react positively or negatively?

The answer may depend in part on whom you are around.

A study found that negative thinking can be contagious in some cases.

For example, the researchers studied 103 college roommates.

They measured each roommate’s tendency towards negative thinking.

It was found that thinking patterns can be contagious.

Students with a negative-thinking roommate became more depressed themselves. And students with more positive thinking roommates were more likely to become more positive as well.

 

The second and third readings. You should begin writing now.

 

The last reading.

 

Now, you have two minutes to check through your work. (a two-minute interval)

 

That is the end of Part Dictation.

 

20164听写评分标准

THINK POSITIVE AND FEEL POSITIVE(标题忽略不计)

第一组:

Are you confident or insecure in a difficult situation? /Do you react positively or negatively? /The answer may depend in part on whom you're around. /A study found that negative thinking can be contagious in some cases./For example, the researchers studied 103 college roommates. / (45words)

 

第二组:

They measured each roommate’s tendency towards negative thinking. / It was found that thinking patterns can be contagious. /Students with a negative-thinking roommate became more depressed themselves. / And students with more positive thinking roommates / were more likely to become more positive as well.(43words)

 

 

1. 听写共分10小节:每节1分,每组评阅五句,每五句为一段。

2. 阅卷教师只需识别错误(错误:0.25大错误:0.5并点击相关按钮,不用计算分

3. 每节最多扣一分

4. 段内重复错误,仅扣一次。段内乱点标点符号,算标点符号错误。总计扣0.5分,算在最后一个评分框中。

5. 错误共分两类:小错误(minor mistakes和大错误(major mistakes)。

A. 小错误

1) 大小写、标点符号错误(如果标点影响后句大小写,算前句的一个小错)

第一组:or negatively? — or negatively.

第二组:tendency —tendency,;roommate’s —roommatesItit

2) 冠词错误:

第一组:in a difficult —in the difficult;

第二组:with a negative-thinking roommate —with negative thinking roommate

 

B. 大错误:漏写、加词造词、换词(冠词见互换替代小错,移位,单复数,拼写,时错误

第一组:negative—negtive/nagetivefound that— found; contagiouscontageous/cotagious; insecureensecure: collegecolleage; in some casesin some case; researchersresearcher/researches; insecurein secure 1

第二组:eachevery; a negative-thinking roommatenegative thinking roommates; contagious contageous/contigious; roommates roomates/remains; measuredmajored; towardstoward, can be could be; were more will be more1

 

6. 下列情况不扣分:

第一组you’re  — you are

第二组negative- thinking —negative thinking

positive thinking positive-thinking

                themselves. And —themselves, and/ themselves and

 

PART. LISTENING COMPREHENSION

 

Section A Talk

【原文再现】

What Is Grit?

Good afternoon, everyone. (1) Today, I would like to talk about my research project concerning the key to success. I would like to start my topic with my own story. When I was 27 years old, I left for a demanding job: teaching seventh graders math in the New York City public schools. And like any teacher, I made quizzes and tests. I gave out homework assignments. When the work came back, I calculated grades. What struck me was that I.Q. was not the only difference between my best and my worst students. Some of my strongest performers did not have super I.Q. scores. Some of my smartest kids weren’t doing so well.

Then, I felt very interested in knowing the reason why the students’ math performance is not that closely related to their I.Q. scores. (2) I started studying kids and adults in all kinds of challenging settings, and in every study my question was, who is successful here and why? My research team and I went to West Point Military Academy. We tried to predict which students would stay in military training and which would drop out. (3) We went to the National Spelling Contest and tried to predict which children would advance furthest in competition. We worked with private companies, asking, which of these sales people are going to keep their jobs? And who’s going to earn the most money? We went to many places and finally, one characteristic emerged as a significant predictor of success. And it wasn’t social intelligence. It wasn’t good looks, physical health, and it wasn’t I.Q. It was grit.

What is grit? (4) Well, grit is passion and perseverance for very long-term goals.(5) Grit is sticking with your future, day in, day out, not just for the week, not just for the month, but for years, and working really hard to make future a reality.(6) Grit is living life like it’s a marathon, not a sprint.

A few years ago, I started studying grit in the Chicago public schools. I asked thousands of high school juniors to take grit questionnaires, and then waited around more than a year to see who would graduate. (7) It turned out that grittier kids were significantly more likely to graduate, even when I matched them on every characteristic I could measure, things like family income, test scores, and so on. To me, the most shocking thing about grit is how little we know, how little science knows, about building it. Every day, parents and teachers ask me, “How do I build grit in kids? How do I keep them motivated for the long run?” Our data show very clearly that there are many talented individuals who simply do not follow through on their commitments. (8) In fact, in our data, grit is usually unrelated to measures of talent.

So far, the best idea I’ve heard about building grit in kids is something called “growth mindset.” (9) Growth mindset is the belief that the ability to learn is not fixed, that it can change with your effort.(10) Kids with grit are much more likely to persevere when they fail, because they don’t believe that failure is a permanent condition.

So growth mindset is a great idea for building grit. But we need more. And that’s where I’m going to end my talk, because that’s where we are. That’s the work that stands before us. We have to be willing to fail, to be wrong, to start over again with lessons learned. As a conclusion, we need to be gritty about getting our kids grittier. Next time, I would like to share with you my experience in building up students’ grit.

 

Now, you have TWO minutes to complete your work.

【答案解析】

(1) success。此类题型的第一道题目往往会考察考生对于talk整体内容的把握,而整篇talk的主题一般在开头即会提到,因此这里讲话人的疑问主要在于到底什么才是成功的关键所在。本题写出success即得分,也可作更加具体的阐释:people’s/students’/students’ math success等均为正确答案;另外考生也可进行同义替换,如:being/becoming successful,但需要注意语法要求,the key to后面要求名词或动名词短语,因此如写作succeedbecome successful只能得半分。

(2) challenge/challenging settings/situations。此题的关键词为all kinds of,可以提示考生答案出现的位置。为了解答自己的疑问,讲话人进行了一系列研究,针对各种挑战情形下孩子和成人的表现,以及如何取得成功的关键。此题的关键词为challengingchallenge,如未写出只能得半分,settings未写出也只有半分,另外注意settingssituations为复数形式,如写成单数形式或sets要扣半分。

(3) Spelling Contest。从原文中看出,讲话人为了进行研究,参观调查了包括西点军校(West Point Military Academy)、全国拼写大赛(the National Spelling Contest)、以及私企在内的众多机构与赛事。此题首字母小写不扣分,考生也可写为the Spelling ContestNational Spelling Contest,但需注意本题字数要求,如写作the National Spelling Contest则一分不得。national如写作nation要扣半分,因此考生在答题时务必要注意准确性。

(4) passion and perseverance/persistence。本题关键词为long-term goals(长远目标),讲话人发现所谓grit,是把生活当作马拉松(marathon)来对待,而不是短跑冲刺(sprint)。因此grit就是激情与坚持不懈的组合。此题passionperseverance(或同义词)必须同时出现,否则扣半分。

(5) future (a) reality。讲话人认为grit就是要坚持自己的目标,不是几天、几星期、几个月,而是年复一年、持之以恒的坚持,使自己的未来目标变成现实。此题的答案还可以是future realfuture come true等。以下情况只可得半分:it truefuture brighter/bettera bright futurefuture and realityfuture or reality等;以下情况不得分:futurefuture wellfuture plans

(6) marathon。结合上两题可以知道,持之以恒的人生应像马拉松,而不是短跑。这三个题目的信息点比较密集,因此考生做好听前准备十分重要。此题marathon一词拼错不得分。

(7) grittier。通过讲话人的调查研究,证明更有韧性的学生更容易毕业。此处答案需注意的是后面有more likely作为提示,因此空格处应填入比较级形式,不是比较级不得分。另外,如果出现拼写错误,如写为gritergritiergritter等也不得分。

(8) (measures of) talent。在被屡屡问及如何培养学生的韧性时,讲话人提出数据显示才华高低与韧性并无关联。此题考生应注意辨识关键词talentmeasure的单复数形式,漏掉任意一个关键词得半分;单复数写错,如:measures of talentsmeasure of talent也只得半分;如写为talents则不得分。

(9) changing/not fixed/changeable/changed with efforts。讲话人提出培养韧性的最好方式是一种名为成长心态growth mindset)的东西,指的是学习能力并非一成不变的,而是可以随着努力多少而改变的。因此考生只要写出changing的同义词形式均可得分,但也要注意形式合理,如not fix只得半分。

(10) (a) temporary/ (an) impermanent (condition)。篇章结尾部分提到,有韧性的学生即使遭遇失败也更容易坚持下去,因为他们知道失败并非永久的状态,还是可以扭转的。因此,考生只要写出permanent的反义词,如temporaryimpermanent就可得一分,但如果出现拼写错误不得分;以下情况不扣分:short-termshort conditionnot permanent等;如果关键词正确,但condition拼错或写为其他单词,如position等,扣半分。希望考生仔细研究以上分析中的评分标准,方能有的放矢的应对talk新题型。

 

SECTION B   CONVERSATIONS

 

In this section, you will hear two conversations. At the end of the conversion, five questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken ONCE ONLY. After each question there will be a ten-second pause. During the pause, you should read the four choices of A, B, C and D, and mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

 

【原文再现】

Conversation One

W: Hello, this is Kate Smith. I’m calling from ABC Company.

M: Oh hello, Kate. Great to hear from you.

W: You’ve already been told that you’ve been shortlisted for interview...

M: Oh... yes...

W: Well, we’re very excited about meeting you. (1) OK, I just want to talk you through the procedure for the day. Someone will meet you when you arrive, and then bring you up to meet myself and Arthur Miller, the CEO.

M: OK, sounds good. So will you be the only member of the interview panel there then?

W: Yes, it’ll be just me and Arthur who will talk to you. The interview will be in three parts - first of all, we’ll ask you some general questions about yourself and your educational and professional background, and then we’ll move on to specifics.

M: Oh, er, specifics? Well er, what kind of questions will you be asking?

W: Well, it’ll be very similar to the personal statement you submitted with your CV – we’ll be expecting you to… to give actual examples of problems you’ve faced and solved, and of what you feel are the major successes in your career so far.

M: OK, well yeah, that sounds great – can’t wait!

W: (2) Then there’ll be a chance for you to ask us any questions - about the job itself, or ABC Company in general...

M: Oh, erm, OK... I’ll think of something!

W: (34) After that, we’d like you to give a short presentation on how you see ABC as a company progressing, and how you see yourself taking us there.

M: OK, so will I be expected to give like a formal-style presentation?

W: It can be as formal or informal as you like. There’ll be a computer and a data projector there available. If you need anything else, just let us know.

M: Oh, er OK, a presentation! I’ll think of something. I haven’t done one of those in a while...

W: Is that all clear?

M: Yes.

W: Great, so, Daniel, (5) I’ll see you at 11a.m., Thursday next week.

M: OK, great, I look forward to meeting you! Thanks, bye.

W: Bye!

 

This is the end of Conversion One. Questions 1 to 5 are based on Conversion One.

 

Question 1: Why does the woman call the man?

Question 2: What kind of questions can the man ask in the interview?

Question 3: Which is the last part of the interview?

Question 4: What might be expected from the man’s presentation?

Question 5: When will the interview be scheduled?

 

SECTION B   CONVERSATIONS

【答案解析】

1. C。女士在对话开始就提到,打电话的目的是要告知男士面试的流程(procedure)。而告知男士进入面试环节(shortlisted for interview)应该是通这个电话之前的事情,故为干扰项。

2. A。此题考生应尤其避免干扰,注意到问题关于男士(即面试者)而非面试官可以问及的情况,选项BC虽然在对话中也有提及,但是属于面试官提问的话题。而男士可以问到的包括关于工作本身以及公司的情况。

3. C。此题提醒考生注意对话中的逻辑信号词,如first of allthenafter that等等。依据这些信号词,不难发现面试的最后一项内容是要男士做一个简短的展示(short presentation)。

4. D34两题信息十分相关,面试官希望在展示中看到的是男士认为ABC这家公司可以有怎样的发展前景,以及男士可以在其中做出怎样的贡献(how you see yourself taking us there)。这里taking us there的意思为带领ABC公司取得progressing的状态。

5. B。电话交谈的最后明确提到面试时间为下周四的上午十一点,考生需把握对话与题目特点,做好细节信息的记录。

 

【原文再现】

Conversion Two

W: It says a growing number of students are making a major hole from the minute they enter the real world because they are already, some of them, more than 100, 000 dollars in debt. With us now is Mark Spencer, he is the senior financial analyst from SBC Bank. Welcome to you!

M: Thank you. Nice to be with you.

W: Now I guess there are two kinds of debts, good debt and bad debt. Where does this go?

M: (7) Well, student loan debt is traditionally considered good debt, but the problem for many students and their families is that the cost of colleges has been going up at 6 to 8% a year, far faster than the income, far faster than the standard of living. That means debt’s taking on a bigger and bigger role in financing education.

W: How much debt is too much debt for, for one student?

M: (8) Well, one guideline is that you look at the first year’s salary in your field after graduation, and use that as, as a barometer, but even then. . .

W: Is that right?

M: Well, you are talking big payments even in that instance, for example, 30, 000 dollars worth of debt. If you are gonna repay that over 10 years, you are talking more than 300 dollars a month at, in payments every month for 10 years.

W: But there is surely more than one way to get a loan for college. There are government programs. There are so many kinds of grants. What’s, what’s the best advice for people who are looking for these loans to try to keep themselves from going under?

M: I understand that loans are just one way of college finance. Take advantage of the other opportunities. (9) Things like a college savings plan, let, let you save on a tax advantage basis. You can put money away in these accounts and withdraw tax-free to pay for that education.

W: So it’s important to start early and that really reduces that reliance on debt later.

M: Another thing, leave no stone unturned, looking at grants, scholarships, even on-campus jobs. I mean every dollar you get that way is seen as another dollar you don’t have to borrow later.

W: (10) The kinds of jobs that so many students, fresh-off students, like to go into, er, charity stuff, volunteer work. This debt is eliminating a lot of that, isn’t it?

M: I think that’s the social cost. Really, I mean, you know, when you consider that, you know, people may pass up a rewarding career in charitable work, or non-profit organization because they have to get a higher salary someplace else to pay off that debt.

W: Yeah, that’s for sure. Mark Spencer, senior financial analyst from SBC Bank. Mark, good you could be here.

M: Thank you.

 

This is the end of Conversion Two. Questions 6 to 10 are based on Conversion Two.

 

Question 6: What is the interview mainly about?

Question 7: How does the cost of college education change every year?

Question 8: What is used to measure student loan debt as a guideline?

Question 9: What is the advantage of joining a college savings plan?

Question 10: What is the possible social cost of college loan?

 

THIS IS THE END OF PART LISTENING COMPREHENSION.

 

6. C。本题为综合考察题,反映了改革后题目更加侧重篇章理解的特点。考生遇到此类题目可不必心急,并要善用7-10细节考察题的内容来帮助自己做出综合判断。由全文两人对话可知,本篇主要是关于大学毕业生如何应对助学贷款问题的,即通过哪些方式可缓解贷款给自身带来的压力的。

7. AMark在对话中提到,传统上来说,助学贷款本是很有希望收回的贷款(good debt),但现在大学所需费用正以每年6%-8%的幅度上涨,远远超出收入上涨水平,因此给学生及其家庭带来了不小压力。

8. B。当女士问及多少贷款对于一个学生而言太多时,Mark提到了一个指导标准(guideline)就是学生毕业后在其工作领域的年收入水平,并将其作为一个晴雨表(指标barometer)。

9. D。对话中女士问到,如何帮助那些需要贷款,但又不至于因还贷而破产(go under)的人们时,Mark提到了大学储蓄计划(college savings plan),即可以将钱存入这个账户,而取出时是免税的,从而来支付教育所需费用。

10. A。女士提到,由于助学贷款的压力,很多新毕业生(fresh-off students)从前愿意从事慈善或志愿者项目(charity stuff/volunteer work),但现在已经越来越少了,而Mark认为这就是助学贷款带来的社会成本(social cost),因为人们更愿意从事高利润回报的职业(rewarding career)来偿还贷款。

 

PART . GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

11. [C] 【解析】本题考察时态。进行时有两个需要注意的使用情境。第一种:当句中出现的时间状语是these daysthis weekthis monththis term 等时,如果句子所要表达的意义是在这一阶段正在发生的事,则动词应用现在进行时。例如,These days we are helping the farmers work on the farm.这些天我们在农场帮农民们干活。或They're having a test this week.这一周,他们在进行一次考试。第二种:现在进行时和频率副词连用,表示一种赞赏、厌恶等情绪的表现手法,如:He is always complaining. 本题目句意:你老是不断打搅我,问我傻问题,我怎么能集中精力?

12. [D] 【解析】本题考察情态动词。在肯定句中,情态动词可以表示推测和可能性,程度由小到大分别是maycanshouldmust.本题四个选项都表示肯定推测,但是D可能性最大。

13. [D] 【解析】本题考察代词。本题的表意有两种可能。第一种:她比任何一个其他女孩都能言善辩。第二种:她比任何一个男孩都能言善辩。“任何其他女孩”应该用any other girl或者the other girls“任何男孩”应该用all boysany boy。让我们更微观比较any otherany的区别。any other 是“其他任何一个”之意,即同一范围内一个与其他剩余的相比较。例如:Shanghai is larger than any other city in China .上海比中国其他任何一个城市都大。即“上海是中国最大的城市,上海属于中国这一范围内。”any 是“任何一个”之意.例如:Shanghai is larger than any city in Japan.上海比日本的任何一个城市都大。即“上海不属于日本这一范围。”

14. [A] 【解析】本题考察反义疑问句。否定词出现在句子中,反义疑问句用肯定。 nobody做主语,正式问题he,口语常用they。这句话的语境属于口语语境,所以选A.

15. [B] 【解析】本题考察名词所有格。双重所有格的形式可为名词+of+名词的所有格,其中of后面的所有格之后的名词被省略;也可为名词+of+所有代名词. 比如TomMikeand Mary were classmates of Stephen's.汤姆,迈克和玛丽是史迪文的同学。请比较:Tom was a classmate of Stephen's.汤姆,迈克和玛丽是史迪文的同学。Bthat可以加可数名词单数,意为:我受够了你那个朋友。

16. [D] 【解析】一般名词修饰名词,用于修饰的名词都用单数形式,而被修饰的名词则视题意。比如a car factorytwo car factories。特殊的则是用于修饰的名词与被修饰名词同单/复数,如womanman a woman teacherthree women teachers)。sport用于修饰名词时都用复数形式(a sports shirt three sports shirts)。

17. [A] 【解析】本题考察动词deserve的用法。deserve的意思是“值得”“应该”,它的后面本来是要用不定式的。如:They didnt deserve to win. 他们不该赢。They did not deserve to get such a high score. 他们不该得那么高的分数。但是,如果当它后面所接动词具有被动意义时,也可用动名词,且这个动名词要用主动形式表示被动意义;此时若将动名词改成不定式,则要用被动形式。如:The man deserves punishing [to be punished]。他这个人是罪有应得。He deserved sending [to be sent] to prison. 他应当被送进监牢。同样用法的词还有needwant, require.

18. [B] 【解析】本题考察主谓一致。集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候,谓语动词就用单数,当强调集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就用复数。这些集体名词如:armyaudiencebandgovernmentgroupflockpolicepublicstaffteamfirmfamily等等。例如:The family is the basic unit of our society.家庭是社会的基本单元。The family are watching TV.全家人正在看电视。所以本题的audience的谓语应该用复数。

19. [B] 【解析】本题考察虚拟语气。1)表示与事实相反的情况时,从句:If+主语+过去时(Be动词用were),主句:主语+ should/would/might/could+do:例如,If I were youI would take an umbrella。如果我是你,我会带把伞。(事实:我不可能是你)。2)表示与过去事实相反的情况,从句:If+主语+had+done,主句:主语+should/would/might/could+have done。例如,If I had got there earlierI should/would have met her. 如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。(事实:去晚了)。3)表示对将来情况的主观推测,从句: if+主语+should+do,主句:主语+should/would/might/could+do。例如:If he should come here tomorrowI would talk to him.如果他明天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。(事实:来的可能性很小,不可能)本题是对过去事实的虚拟。从句正常语序是:If it had not been for your advice,从句可以采用倒装,把if去掉,把had提前。

20. [C] 【解析】本题考察虚拟语气。动词wish后接宾语从句时,从句谓语要用虚拟语气。若要表示与现在事实相反的愿望,从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时(同样be动词换成were);若表示与过去相反的愿望,从句谓语用would / could+have +过去分词或者过去完成时had done(注意这里的情态动词不能用should);若表示将来没有把握或不太可能实现的愿望,用would (could)+动词原形。本题句意:我真希望我当时花钱能再谨慎一些。表示遗憾。

21. [A] 【解析】本题考察动词辨析。assure用来表示向某人保证某事将要发生,既可以用来确证某事,也可以表示使某人确信(If you ASSURE a person of somethingyou promise them or tell them that)。assure的宾语通常是人或人称代词,所以不能直接搭用that clause.其常用结构为:assure sb of sthensure的意思是使某行为或某件事的结果得以保证,即确保某事发生(to make sure that sthhappens.ensure后可以直接跟 that-clause,并可以用复合宾语.常用结构为:ensure sth./。ensure that clause en-sure obj.(i)+obj.(dinsure 意思是为防不测向保险公司付钱投保(to pay money to an insurance company against future disaster)。例如,My house is insured against fire.我的房子保了火险. ascertain意思为“确定”,例如Through doing this, the teacher will be able to ascertain the extent to which the child understands what he is reading.这样一来,老师就能确定孩子们对他所读的内容理解多少了。

22. [A] 【解析】本题考察名词辨析。result“结果”,指做某事产生的直接结果,或指某抽象概念的结果。例如,The students are intensely anxious to know the result of the entrance examination. 学生们非常渴望知道入学考试的结果。consequence“后果”、“经过”,多指某物产生的不良后果。例如, If you behave so foolishly, you will be ready to bear the consequence.如果你行为是如此的愚蠢,你就准备好承担后果吧。outcome“结局”、“结果”,指有待见分晓的结果或结局。例如,We are fully confident that negotiation between the two countries on trade will have a happy outcome.我们有充分的信心,两国之的贸易谈判会有一个愉快的结果。aftermath指发生天灾人祸之后随之而来的不良的,甚至更严重的后果或余波。An unemployment surge is striking many countries as an aftermath of the global financial crisis.失业浪潮作为全球金融危机的后果正在波及许多国家。本题句意:警察局因为一位赤手群众的死亡,和善后不利,而饱受批评。

23. [A] 【解析】本题考察动词辨析。  repel:主要表示一种厌恶,不喜欢,抵制。像对什么反感,对什么抵制。dispel: 消散,驱散,像消除烟雾,消除疑虑,消除负面状态等。expel: 主要指驱逐出去,开除一类的。像驱逐某人,开除某人等。quell: 压制,镇压。本题句意:外事秘书努力消除大家对他危机公关的疑虑。

24. [B] 【解析】本题考察动词辨析。本题句意:共同基金是一些投资者的首选,他们不愿意花时间理解股票细节,或者缺少资源建立证券投资组合。Deprive意为“剥夺”,yearn意为“渴望”,attain意为“达到”,lack意为“缺少”。

25. [A] 【解析】run into 意为“撞见” run across 意为“偶遇”,strike on意为“想起,想出”,strike up意为“开始一段关系”。本题句意:克里斯在运动物品贸易会上遇到了约翰,他们立马开始了一段融洽的友谊。

26. [C] 【解析】本题考察副词辨析。especially相当于in particular做“特别地”;specially相当于on purpose 做“专门地、特意地”;particularly=especially指“特别、尤其”,especially指用于正式问题,particularly既可用于正式问题,也可用于日常口语。Specifically差别更大一些,意为:特有地,明确地; 按种别地。比如,We haven't specifically targeted school children.我们尚未特意把学生定为我们的目标。本题句意:“我要很快离开这个国家了”,他对专门(为此事)聚在一起的一群记者说道。

27. [D] 【解析】本题考察形容词辨析。四个选项分别意为:现当代的,权宜的,自发的,临时的。本题句意:以色列和哈马斯达成了临时停火协议,把停火时间多延长24小时,直到周四午夜。

28. [B] 【解析】本题考察短语辨析。四个短语分别意为:因为,在---之前,与---相关,多亏了。在关掉了闹铃并且相信自己有自动醒来的能力之前,你应该连续几周保持规律的时间安排,让自己适应新的安排。

29. [B] 【解析】本题考察形容词辨析。四个选项分别意为:勇敢的,多样的,精力充沛的,警觉的。本题句意:如果你是运动员,强健的腹肌能保证后背坚挺,同时让你在做各种上肢运动时活动自如,避免运动损伤。

30. [D] 【解析】四个选项分别意为:事实,真理,技巧,过程。割鲨鱼鱼翅是一个非常残忍的过程,在此过程中,鱼翅被切下来,半死不活的鲨鱼被直接扔回大海。

 

PART. CLOZE

31. [H]【解析】lists of subjects指的是前文中所列出的no novels, no encyclopedias, no cookbooks...

32. [N]【解析】本句意思为“我们生活在一个被文字所烙印的世界,而这些文字是由一些写作科技所移植过来的”。“transplant”意思是“移植”。

33. [I]【解析】本句意思为“在古代,国王宣示他们的权威,并以书面形式颁布法令”。“promulgate”意思为“颁布”,常常与法律连用。

34. [E]【解析】passed on through generations”意思为“一代代传播下来”。

35. [D]【解析】disseminated through writing”意思为“通过文字传播”,“disseminate”意思为“传播”。

36. [K]【解析】bear scant resemblance”意思为“有很少相似之处”,意译为“截然不同”,本句意思为“没有文字的世界会和我们所处的这个世界截然不同。”

37. [M]【解析】此处意为“文字是一个复杂的社会必需品”。“sophisticated”与后文中的“complexity”相呼应。

38. [C]【解析】not directly involved in food procurement or production”此处意为“社会成员间接地参与食品采购或生产”。

39. [A]【解析】此处意为“文明需要一个充足的系统来记录发生的种种”。“ample”意思为“充足的”。

40. [G]【解析】此处意为“古秘鲁人没有用文字来做记录,而是用结绳来记录。“instead”意为“不是...而是...”。

 

PART V. READING COMPREHENSION

Section A

41. [B] 【解析】语义理解题。根据该词所在句but these were setting my feet in the road to eventual fortune,但就是这些使我踏上了最终命运的道路,“set my feet”这里译为开始一段经历,故选B

42. [A] 【解析】语义理解题。根据文章第二段,尽管他非常饥饿,想要吃到梨,但是他仍然在意别人的目光,想要装作并不想吃的样子,他之所以这样做,就是为了维护自己的尊严,故选A

43. [D] 【解析】事实细节题。根据文章第六段,Brother A said he would starve to death; Brother B said he wouldn’t. 后面的句子可知,兄弟B对这一赌注的态度更积极故选D

44. [C] 【解析】综合理解题。文章列举了几个能代表和平的象征物,故选C

45. [D] 【解析】事实细节题。根据文章第五段In the Chinese tradition, the rainbow is a common symbol for marriage because the  colours represent the union of yin and yang. 可知在中国,彩虹另有寓意,D

46. [A] 【解析】事实细节题。根据文章第六段,It was often hung in doorways as a sign of friendship. 故选A

47. [D] 【解析】事实细节题。根据文章最后一段,It was found in many Asian cultures, but is generally associated with ancient Egypt. D

48. [C] 【解析】语义理解题。根据文章第五段Maybe something useful will come of Clinton’s idea, but I’m not all that hopeful.可知作者克林顿的提议表示怀疑,故选C

49. [B] 【解析】语义理解题。根据文章第七段The problem is that almost any punishment is sufficient to deter the middle class, while for members of the underclass, probation may be translated as “I beat it”. 适宜的惩罚只能改变一些中产阶级,对于下层人民意味着被击垮,因此对于他们而言,这种惩罚是绝望的,故选B

50. [D] 【解析】综合理解题。根据文章第十三段解决上述一切问题的方法就是防止小孩患上绝望的疾病,这是一问题出现的根源,故选D

 

Section B

SECTION B (每题满分为2)

评分原则:

1) 评分侧重点是阅读理解,不是写作,故评分点是关健词/词组是否正确。

2) 不要求学生用完整句回答。

3) 字数如超过15个字,扣0.5分。

4) 学生写的关键词中有对有错,酌情给分。

5) 关键词词性错误扣0.5分,比如peace写成peaceful

6) 语法错误扣0.5分(在学生写句子的情况下,比如: It symbolize peace and unity.

7) 同类错误不重复扣分。这里“同类”指语法和词汇错误,不指“相同”错误。比如,回答中temptation appropriate 都拼错,但视为同类错误,扣0.5分。语法错误的处理也按照上述规则。

 

PASSAGE ONE

51. He struggled to resist the temptation of eating food.

【解析】根据第四段I could hardly keep my wits together in the presence of that food, but as I was not asked to sample it, I had to bear my trouble as best as I could.食物面前我很难集中精力,但我并没有被邀请品尝。因此主人公要做的是拒绝食物诱惑或者忍受饥饿。

评分要点:完整回答要包含“拒绝食物诱惑或者忍受饥饿”。

2分:He struggled to resist the temptation of eating the food.

1分:The author was not asked to sample the food.

52. He was the most appropriate person on the bet.

【解析】根据第六段,他满足这个赌注对象的条件,故最后一句的意思是他被选中了,因为他是最适当的人选。

评分要点:完整回答要包含“被选中或适当的人选”和“用百万英镑或赌注”两层意思。

2分:He was the most appropriate person on the bet.

1分:The brothers gave him the note.

备注:on the bet按照0.5分处理。

PASSAGE TWO

53. It symbolizes peace and unity.

【解析】根据文章第八段Whatever the history, the olive branch is a part of many modern flags symbolizing peace and unity. 橄榄枝象征着和平和统一。

评分要点:完整回答要包含“象征”和“和平和团结”两层意思。

2分:It symbolizes peace and unity.

1分:peace and unity或者 It symbolizes peace.

0.5分:peace或者 unity

PASSAGE THREE

54. Satisfying basic needs and doing low-paid work.

【解析】根据文章第十,想要福利事业顺利进行,既要满足基本需要,也要让他们做一些底薪工作。

评分要点:完整回答要包含“满足基本需求”和“做低薪工作”两层意思。

2分:Satisfying basic needs and doing low-paid work.

1分:help the poor and keep people hard-working

0.5分:basic needs或者 low-paid jobs

55. We should have hope for the future (under bad circumstances).

【解析】即使在最糟的环境下,我们也能掌控自己的人生,即对自己的未来充满希望

评分要点:表达出“对将来充满希望”即可。

2分:We should have hope for the future.

      Good things will happen for us in the future.

1.5分:People do not feel despaired.

 

评分案例:

案例19.5

51. He had to resist the temptation of the food.

52. He was chosen and got the banknote in the bet.

53. Because it symbolizes peace and unity.

54. We should help the poor and discourage the lazy.

55. Hope can make us struggle and survive under bad circumstances.

 

案例26.5

51. He must pretend that he wasn't desire for food.

52. The man was chosen to get that note.

53. Because the olive branch indicates long periods of peace.

54. Reward and punishment.

55. We always believe that the future can be better.

 

案例30.5

51. He had to control his sights for the remain food.

52. He was in the same situation of the brothers.

53. Oliver's can be cultivated in long period of peace.

54. Manipulate people into self-suffering and pinkish them into good citizenship.

55. People can beat the bad situation by belief.

 

PART . WRITING   

 

写作评分标准

 

评分

分数

(整体描述

内容阐述能力

10

篇章组织能力

3

语言运用能力

7

5

   18-20

    8.5-10

    2.5-3

   6.5-7

    4

   15-17

    7.5-8

    2-2.5

   5.5-6

    3

   12-14

    6-7

    1.5-2

   4.5-5

    2

8-11

    5-5.5

    1-1.5

   3.5-4

    1

    1-7

     1-5

    0.5-1

    1-3

    0

    0

      0

      0

     0

 

 

 


内容阐述能力

篇章组织能力

语言运用能力

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

缩写部分

● 准确表述材料主题

● 准确表述材料中心内容

● 全面准确抓住材料要点

● ●准确描述材料间关系(如有两份材料)

 

讨论部分

● 讨论切题,中心明确

● 观点明确,有些新意

● 要点陈述清晰

● 能针对原文观点展开讨论

● 论据充分有力

● 论据种类丰富

● 结论自然完整

 

达到字数要求各部分长度合适

通顺

● 缩写和讨论两个部分顺序安排合理

● 缩写和讨论部分内部结构完整

● 缩写部分两份材料之间过渡自然(如有两份材料)

● 讨论部分要点明确

● 讨论部分要点顺序合理

● 段落划分合理

 

衔接

● 全文衔接手段准确、丰富、自然,有助于理解

词汇

● 词汇运用准确

● 词汇丰富

● 词汇运用自然

 

语法/句法

● 语法正确

● 句式丰富多样

● 句式自然

 

书写规范

● 拼写/大小写正确

● 标点符号使用准确

● 卷面整洁

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

缩写部分

准确表述材料主题

较准确表述材料中心内容

材料要点有少量遗漏

较准确描述材料间关系(如有两份材料)

 

讨论部分

讨论较切题,中心较明确

观点明确,略有新意

要点陈述较清晰

能尝试展开讨论

论据较充分有力

论据种类较丰富

结论较自然完整

 

达到字数要求各部分长度合适

通顺

● 缩写和讨论两个部分顺序安排合理

● 缩写和讨论部分内部结构基本完整

● 缩写部分两份材料之间有过渡(如有两份材料)

● 讨论部分要点较明确

● 讨论部分要点顺序较合理

● 段落划分基本合理

 

衔接

● 全文衔接手段较准确、丰富、自然,对理解有帮助

词汇

● 词汇运用较准确,有少量错误,但不影响理解

● 词汇量较丰富

● 词汇运用较自然

 

语法/句法

● 少量语法错误,但不影响理解

● 句式较多样

● 句式较自然

 

书写规范

● 拼写/大小写较正确

● 标点符号使用较准确

● 卷面较整洁

 

 

3

缩写部分

基本准确表述材料主题

表述材料中心内容有一些偏差

材料要点部分遗漏

未能描述材料间关系(如有两份材料)

 

通顺

● 缩写和讨论两个部分顺序基本合理

● 缩写和讨论部分内部结构部分遗漏

● 缩写部分两份材料之间美有过渡(如有两份材料)

词汇

● 词汇运用有少量错误,且对理解有一定影响

● 词汇量较有限

● 词汇运用不够自然

 

 

2

缩写部分

材料主题和中心内容与原 文相关,但有较大偏差

基本不能总结要点,仅是罗列部分细节

未能描述材料间关系(如有两份材料)

 

讨论部分

 内容尚切题,但中心不够准确

观点不够明确

要点陈述有些混乱

只能展开简单讨论

论据简单

没有结论或结论片面

 

基本不符合字数要求,或各部分长度很不合适

通顺

● 缩写和讨论两个部分顺序安排不够合理

● 缩写和讨论部分内部结构有较多遗漏

● 缩写部分两份材料之间没有过渡(如有两份材料)

● 讨论部分要点不明确

● 讨论部分要点顺序不合理

● 段落划分不合理

 

衔接

全文仅能使用少量衔接手段,或者虽有一些衔接手段,但错误较多导致理解困难 

词汇

● 词汇运用有少量错误,且对理解有一定影响

● 词汇量较有限

● 词汇运用不够自然

 

语法/句法

● 有较多语法错误,严重影响理解

● 句式不够丰富,仅能使用少数种类句式,或者句子错误较多

● 句式很不自然

 

书写规范

● 有较多拼写/大小写较正确

● 有较多标点符号使不够准确

● 卷面杂乱,涂改较多

 

 

 

1

缩写部分

材料主题和中心内容与原 文相关,但有较大偏差

不能总结要点,仅是罗列部分细节

未能描述材料间关系(如有两份材料)

 

讨论部分

讨论与话题相关,但中心不够准确

观点不够明确

要点陈述不清

不能展开讨论

无论据

无结论

 

基本不符合字数要求,或各部分长度很不合适

通顺

● 缩写和讨论两个部分顺序安排不够合理

● 缩写和讨论部分内部结构有较多遗漏

● 缩写部分两份材料之间没有过渡(如有两份材料)

● 讨论部分要点间关系混乱

● 讨论部分要点顺序不合理

● 段落划分不合理

 

衔接

全文仅能使用少量衔接手段,或者虽有一些衔接手段,但错误较多导致理解困难 

词汇

● 词汇严重贫乏,基本不能运用词汇表达意义

 

语法/句法

● 语法知识贫乏,基本不能写出完整句子

 

书写规范

● 基本无法正确拼写,使用大小写和标点符号

● 卷面杂乱,涂改较多

 

 

 

0

空白,仅抄写部分考题内容,

或仅有部分无意义文字,或内

容完全不相关

基本没有篇章组织能力

基本没有语言运用能力

 

Sample1(16.5) 3.5+4.5+2.5+6=16.5

评语:内容阐述能力:3.5+4.5

缩写部分:准确表述材料主题;材料中心内容较全。

讨论部分:论点明确能针对原文观点展开讨论,要点较明确

篇章组织能力:2.5

缩写和讨论部分内部结构完整

语言运用能力:6

词汇:词汇运用准确;词汇丰富;词汇运用自然

能使用自己的语言卷面整洁。

 

The latest news on the term-time holidays reveals that parents are to be banned from taking their children away from school during term-time holidays. Those who break this new rule will face fines as a result.

The regulation was established, according to a senior source at the Department for Education, mainly because the time out of school would do harm to children’s educational development. He also mentioned that the regulation was an integral part of government’s practice to lower the truancy levels in schools. This rigorous measure is believed to resolve the cultural problems in the education eventually. Additionally, the general secretary of the National Association of Head Teachers considered the measure useful as it would prevent parents from too much pressure.

To the best of my belief, it is unwise to ban parents from taking their children out of school for holiday in purpose of saving money. Firstly, it is essential that students get an experience of social life and beautiful nature instead of repetitive school life during term-time. If the duration of the holiday is relatively short, the student will surely be able to make up what has been taught during his absence. Moreover, if the ban is strictly practiced, a great number of families will be faced with immense economic burden which they cannot afford to undertake. Even with the social welfare system, the expensive tuition fee can only be covered partly, leaving students’ parents in an economic dilemma. Last but not least, the truancy level may not be lowered by such rigorous measures and strict penalties because this type of coercion is easily inclined to trigger students’ and parents’ opposition. That is to say, it is highly possible that parents take students out of school for holiday even more frequently and the truancy level rises consequently after the establishment of the regulation. The messy environment will finally damage the school.

To sum up, I’m not an advocate of the ban on holidays during term-time because students need social life, families need light economic burden and schools need harmonious campus environment.

 

Sample 22.5+5+2.5+6=16

评语:内容阐述能力:2.5+5

缩写部分:基本准确表述材料主题;材料中心内容少量遗漏

讨论部分:论点明确能针对原文观点展开讨论,要点较明确

篇章组织能力:2.5

缩写和讨论部分内部结构完整

语言运用能力:6

词汇:词汇运用准确;词汇丰富;词汇运用自然

能使用自己的语言卷面整洁。

In general, the excerpt introduces Michael Gove's proposal that parents should not be allowed to take their children out of school for holiday during term time. He argues, firstly, any time out of will pose potential damage to a child's education and secondly, taking term-time holiday can ensure a more academically rigorous educational environment.

Different from UK's Education Secretary, I believe this policy is unjustifiable, inefficient and harmful, and thus should not be welcomed.

To begin with, prohibiting children from going out with parents during terms violates children and parents' freedom of choice. Parents are rational being who are able to make reasonable and best choice for their children according to evaluation and cost-benefit analysis based on their own family conditions. School, as a mere education agency, is entitled with no right to intervene with individual family's affairs as long as they do not harm a third party that might involve.

Besides, even if the policy has a legitimate justification, say, for the sake of overall educational environment, it is very unlikely to take effect. If parents really want to take their children out, they could find multiple ways to fake 'authorized excuse' and ask for a leave, for example, by providing the school with fabricated proof from doctors to escape the penalties.

Moreover, from a consequential level, this policy will further misunderstanding between parents and school, and even undermine children's incentive to learn. Leaving a short period of time from school is not necessarily detrimental to students' study as long as they could catch up later, while forbidding them from going out makes both students and parents feel slightly offended and become increasingly dissatisfied with the stricter school management, which is not at all beneficial to promote a better educational culture in the UK.

To my understanding, given all the negative aspects of the ban, the school can take other alternative measures to solve the problem, for instance, increasing the intensity and difficulty of courses, so that possible bad effect could be avoided and more favorable educational environment could be generated.

 

Sample31+4+2+5=12

评语:内容阐述能力:1+4

缩写遗漏信息过多;

讨论论点明确,论述尚充分;篇章组织能力:2

语言运用能力:5

语言尚流畅

Some parents in the UK take their children to holidays during school time. Although this saves part of money, it could have a negative impact on children's education. It will be banned for families to take term-time breaks.

I, however, hold an opposite view on this ban. Taking term-like holidays is acceptable and reasonable. Firstly, study is not limited in school, but from the nature and experience. Term-like holidays give students an opportunity to put what they study of school into practice in reality. Geographic knowledge is a noticeable example. Therefore, a term-time holiday in fact is  beneficial to study. Besides, cost is a considerable issue. The price even triples in the period of heated holiday. Some families do not have the ability to support. The only chance for them is to take a term-time holiday. An unforgettable holiday could not only contribute to the sense of family Union, but also the healthy development of children. Great experience with parents is an essential part of any child's growth. So a term-time holiday is a precious chance for parents of ordinary family to take their children to create a unique memory, because the short lack of school cannot equal to the healthy development of children.

On the other hand, a term-time holiday is beneficial to student's mastery of knowledge. Students could get more practice rather than mere theory. On the other hand, a healthy growth for a child is much more important. It is reasonable for parents to take children out of school for holiday in order to save money.

 

Sample41.5+2.5+1+3.5=8.5

评语:内容阐述能力:1.5=2.5

缩写部分:缩写不符合要求,表达思维混乱,

讨论:讨论尚切题,论述不充分,仅从原文的抄袭

篇章组织能力:1

语言运用能力:3.5

语言较多错误。

Recently, a hot topic is that whether parents should take children out of school for holiday during term time in order to save money. Most people disagree this kind of action because it is dangerous, bring down truancy levels in schools and the education is more important. As far as I am concerned, I disagree that parents take children out of school for holiday during term time in order to save money. The reasons are as follows.

    To start with, nay time out of school has the potential to damage a child’s education. If the children out of school, they will have no time to study. The result is that they can’t improve themselves. And when they are out of school, they will have no energy to study, no interest to study as well. What’s more, this is part of the government’s wider commitment to bring down truancy levels in schools. The students didn’t study hard, the grade will be very slow. So the truancy levels in school will be down. There will also be stricter panalties for parents and schools. Education Secretary take the measures to make education more academically rigorous and to tackle a culture in the educational establishment which he believes has accepted "excuses for failure”. Last but not least, a child’s education is more important than a holiday. If a child has good education, he will get good skills. It will be benefit to his future. Good education is the most important thing to a person, it is more important than everything.

To sum up, education is more important than a holiday. Parents shouldn’t take children out of school for holiday during term time in order to save money.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEM4-2016监考步骤

考试时间:2016年4月23日(星期六)上午8:30-10:40。考试正式开始15分钟后,迟到考生不得进入考场。考试正式开始60分钟后,考生方可交卷离开考场;考试结束前30分钟内考生不得交卷离开考场。请监考老师按以下流程实施考试。

一、8:15(入场铃响后)组织考生进入考场,检查考生证件,安排考生入座。向考生展示试卷密封完好性后当着考生面启封试卷,先发给每位考生空白记录纸壹张然后发试题册壹份答题卡1和2各壹张要求考生在答题卡1和答题卡2填上准考证号、姓名和校名提示考生调试好接收机。绝不能同时把答题卡1、2、3发给考生

二、8:30(开考铃响后)监考老师宣布考试正式开始,接收听力考试的播放内容:

1.监考老师及全体考生带上耳机注意收听,利用Part I(Dictation)前的指示部分调节音量。Part I(Dictation)做在答题卡1上,听写共念四遍,用时10分钟,Part I结束后,磁带预留1分钟时间供考生检查听写。考生不必在答题卡1上书写听写标题。

2.继续做Part II(listening Comprehension Section A)。该项目做在答题卡1上。所发的空白记录纸在听时记笔记用。该项目有2分钟的时间给学生检查。

3. Part II(listening Comprehension Section B)做在答题卡2上。当听到THIS IS THE END OF PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION,监考员收答题卡1

三、9:00开始做Part III,该项目用时10分钟

9:10开始做part IV, 该项目用时10分钟。

9:20开始做part V,该项目用时35分钟。

Part III、Part IV和Part V的答案均写在答题卡2上,9:55 收回答题卡2

9:55监考员发答题卡3,(要求考生在答题卡3上填写准考证号、姓名和校名),并宣布开始做Part VI(Writing),该部分用时45分钟,10:40考试结束铃响后,监考老师宣布停止作答,收回题卡3和试题册,清点答题卡和试题册份数,确定无误后方可宣布学生离开考场。

考生认真学习本提示:

TEM4特别提示

一、请考生用正规2B铅笔黑色字迹签字笔0.5mm或以上)答题不允许用其它笔作答,答案不得超出答题区红色矩形边框

、填涂处只准用橡皮擦修改;书写处只准用修改符号将该部分内容划去,不准用涂改液或透明胶带纸粘扯欲修改处;否则将影响网上评卷。

三、考试项目及时间如下:考试时间约为130分钟

Part IDictation                                            10min

Part IIListening Comprehension                              20min

Part III: Language Usage                                         10min

Part IV: Cloze                                                     10min

Part V:  Reading Comprehension                                 35min

Part VI: Writing                                                   45min

Part I Part IISection A)做在答题卡1上;Part II (Section B)Part IIIPart IVPart V做在答题卡2上;Part VI做在答题卡3上。

 



 
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