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Cultural Difference among English Speaking Countries


        Cultural practices, cultural differences, local manners, and mores: traveling the globe can be a behavioral minefield, even when you have the best intentions. Everything from greeting to eating can be an opportunity to do the wrong thing, and not only embarrass yourself, but offend your host countrymen. Look out for the following cultural mistakes and try to avoid them while going abroad

  文化习惯、文化差异、当地礼仪和风俗:即使你怀着良好的意愿,这些文化陷阱也可能让你的环球旅游险象环生。从问候到饮食,稍不留神就会出差错,不仅让自己难堪,还有可能冒犯东道主。到国外时要特别留心并尽量避免误入以下几种文化陷阱。

  Touching Someone 触摸他人

  Where It's Offensive: Korea, Thailand, China, Europe, the Middle East

  禁忌地:韩国、泰国、欧洲、中东

  What's Offensive 禁忌:

  Personal space varies as you travel the globe. In Mediterranean countries, if you refrain from touching someone's arm when talking to them or if you don't greet them with kisses or a warm embrace, you'll be considered cold. But backslap someone who isn't a family member or a good friend in Korea, and you'll make them uncomfortable. In Thailand, the head is considered sacred--never even pat a child on the head

  个人空间的概念因地而异。在地中海国家,如果你和别人交谈时没有碰对方的手臂,或见面问候时没和对方亲吻拥抱,别人会认为你不热情。但在韩国,拍别人的背会让对方感觉不安,除非此人是你的家庭成员或好友。在泰国,头是很神圣的部位??就算是小孩子的头也不要随便乱拍。

  What You Should Do Instead 对策:

  Observe what locals are doing and follow suit. In Eastern countries remember that touching and public displays of affection are unacceptable. In places like Qatar and Saudi Arabia, men and women are forbidden from interacting, let along touching

  观察当地人的一举一动并照着做。记住,在东方国家,身体接触或在公众场合流露感情往往不被人接受。在卡塔尔和沙特阿拉伯这样的地方,男女交往都被禁止,更不要说身体接触了。

  Blowing Your Nose 擤鼻涕

  Where It's Offensive: Japan, China, Saudi Arabia, France

  禁忌地:日本、沙特阿拉伯、法国

  What's Offensive 禁忌:

  Some cultures find it disgusting to blow your nose in public--especially at the table. The Japanese and Chinese are also repelled by the idea of a handkerchief

  有些文化认为当众擤鼻涕是让人厌恶的行为??尤其在餐桌上。日本人还排斥使用手帕。

  What You Should Do Instead 对策:

  If traveling through Eastern and Asian countries, leave the hankies at home and opt for disposable tissues instead. In France as well as in Eastern countries, if you're dining and need to clear your nasal passages, excuse yourself and head to the restroom. Worst-case scenario: make an exaggerated effort to steer away from the table. Let's hope you don't have a cold

  到东方或亚洲国家旅游时,把手帕留在家中,选择用一次性纸巾吧!在法国以及一些东方国家,如果在就餐过程中你需要擤鼻涕,要先说声请原谅再去洗手间。最糟糕的情景是:极为夸张地从餐桌上扭过头去擤鼻涕。还是祈祷自己不要感冒吧!

 Talking Over Dinner 就餐时谈话就餐

Where It's Offensive: Africa, Japan, Thailand, China, Finland.

           禁忌地禁忌地禁忌地禁忌地 非洲、日本、泰国、芬兰

          What's Offensive 禁忌:

In some countries, like China, Japan, and some African nations, the food's the thing, so don't start chatting about your day's adventures while everyone else is digging into dinner. You'll likely be met with silence--not because your group is unfriendly, but because mealtimes are for eating, not talking. Also avoid conversations in places a country might consider sacred or reflective--churches in Europe, temples in Thailand, and saunas in Finland. What You Should Do Instead

在一些国家,如中国,日本和一些非洲国家,食品的东西,所以不要一开始聊起一天的冒险,而其他人都在大快朵颐。你很可能会遭遇沉默 - 这并非你是不友好的,但因为就餐时间都是用来吃的,不说话。此外,还要避免谈话的地方,一些被认为是神圣或需要沉思 - 比如欧洲的教堂,泰国的庙宇和芬兰的桑拿浴室。你应该做的

 

What You Should Do Instead 对策

 

Keep quiet! 保持沉默!

 

Removing Your Shoes…or Not 脱鞋......与否

Where It's Offensive: Hawaii, the South Pacific, Korea, China, Thailand.  

        禁忌:夏威夷、太平洋群岛、韩国、泰国

What's Offensive 禁忌:   

       Take off your shoes when arriving at the door of a London dinner party and the hostess will find you uncivilized, but fail to remove your shoes before entering a home in Asia, Hawaii, or the Pacific Islands and you'll be considered disrespectful. Not only does shoe removal very practically keeps sand and dirt out of the house, it's a sign of leaving the outside world behind.

Corporate culture and negotiation style

 

脱掉你的鞋子到达的伦敦晚宴的门时,女主人会认为你不文明,但在进入亚洲,夏威夷或太平洋群岛的居民家中不脱鞋,你会被认为失礼。不仅脱掉鞋子几乎把沙粒和灰尘的房子,这是一个迹象,把外面的世界抛在脑后。


What You Should Do Instead 对策

 

If you see a row of shoes at the door, start undoing your laces. If not, keep the shoes on.如果你在门口看到一排鞋子,就解开自己的鞋带开。否则,就穿鞋进去吧!

 

Knowing Your Right from Your Left 分清左右手

   Where It's Offensive: India, Morocco, Africa, the Middle East.禁忌地:印度、非洲、中东   

       What's Offensive 禁忌:      

   Many cultures still prefer to eat using traditional methods--their hands. In these cases, food is often offered communally, which is why it's important to wash your hands before eating and observe the right-hand-is-for-eating and the left-hand-is-for-other-duties rule. If you eat with your left hand, expect your fellow diners to be mortified. And when partaking from a communal bowl, stick to a portion that's closest to you. Do not get greedy and plunge your hand into the center.

许多文化依然喜欢吃用传统的方法 - 他们的手。在这种情况下,食物往往,这就是为什么它重要的是要勤洗手,进食前和观察的右手是吃和左手是其他职务的规则。如果你吃你的左手,期待你的同伴会感觉蒙受羞辱。而当领受从公共的碗里,坚持到离您最近的一个部分。不要贪婪地把手的中心。

What You Should Do Instead 对策:

        Left-handed? Attempt to be ambidextrous--even children who are left-handed in these cultures are taught to eat with their right hand--or at least explain yourself to your fellow diners before plunging in.

左撇子吗?尝试灵巧的 - 即使孩子谁是左撇子在这些文化被教导用右手吃饭 - 或者至少解释一下你的同胞食客,然后又把。

Once you are on the ground of a different country, remain highly sensitive to native behavior. Never be completely surprised by anything; try to take it in stride, and don't feel offended if something seems offensive--like queue jumping. After all, this is a global village, and we are all very different.

一旦你在地面上的一个不同的国家,到本机的行为保持高度敏感。永远无法完全惊讶的东西,尝试采取它在大步,不要太介意,如果事情似乎进攻 - 像插队。毕竟,这是一个地球村,我们都非常不同。

 

 

  英美社会中有一些常见的迷信说法和禁忌,如下:

     1) To get out of bed on the wrong side means you will have a bad day. 下床方向错了,一天都不会顺利。

2) It is unlucky to have a black cat cross the road in front of you. 看见黑猫在你面前横穿马路是不吉利的。

    3) The bride should not see the husband on the morning before the wedding. 在婚礼举行前的早上,新娘不应见自己的丈夫。

     4) Cattle lying down indicate rain. 牛躺下预示有雨。

    5) A cricket in the house is good luck. 屋里有蟋蟀会带来好运。

    6) To pass under a ladder brings bad luck. 从梯子下面走过会带来厄运

7) Lighting three cigarettes from one match brings bad luck to the third person.一根火柴点燃三支香烟会给第三个人带来厄运。

8) To break a mirror brings seven years' bad luck. 打碎镜子会带来7年厄运。

     9) Carrying a rabbit's foot brings good luck. 提起兔脚可交好运。

     10) Opening an umbrella in the house is bad luck. 在屋中撑伞会倒霉。

 

 

 

)The number of taboos:  

      In particular, many Western Catholics do not believe that "13" This figure is dangerous and should avoid it as much as possible. Some people even a month "13" on this day was also some anxiety, they also believe that Friday is unlucky because the West is not some "13" days (especially Friday), are generally not held. Even house number, hotel room number, floor number, its banquet table, the number of motor vehicle fleet are not "13" the figure, the banquet is not in the "13" held more taboo "13" people were with the meal I. Taboo "13" and the main reason for Friday, reportedly because of "13" as betraying Jesus and Judas died in "Last Supper" and the myth of the order of a few of the symbol of the kingdom of heaven凶神; and Friday, is Jesus was crucifixion and Adam and Eve eat the forbidden fruit of the day were driven out of paradise. If "13" and on Friday, happened on the same day, the day was the West known as "Black", some people feel a constant state of anxiety.

)禁忌症:
特别是,许多西方天主教徒不相信,“13”这个数字是危险的,应尽可能地避免。有些人甚至一个月就在这一天为“13”,也有一些焦虑,他们也认为星期五是不吉利的,因为西方是一些“13”日(星期五),一般不举行。甚至连门牌号码,宾馆的房间号码,楼层号,宴会桌,机动车辆的数量是不是“13”这个数字,宴会是在“13”举行了忌讳“13”人的餐点我禁忌“13”和星期五的主要原因,据说是因为“13”出卖耶稣和犹大在最后的晚餐死亡和神话的几个天堂王国的凶神的象征秩序的;周五,是耶稣被钉十字架,亚当和夏娃吃了禁果的日子被逐出天堂。如果“13”,上周五,发生在同一天,这一天是西方被称为黑色星期五,有些人觉得惶惶不可终日。

 

     In addition, the death of the West because of the war of terror, but also taboo "3", especially in the cigarette lighter, when the third person point, they are often reluctant surface, and some people even declined.

     In Africa, most countries with the view that odd color negative; while in Japan, while odd-numbered side of the coin is to see Fuxing auspicious figures, not even of interest on. The Japanese language there are many taboos, such as "bitter" and "death", and even some of homophonic words are list of taboo, such as the numeral "4" the same pronunciation and death, "42" is the pronunciation of the verb to die shape means that the bad luck and misfortune. Send gifts in everyday life 4, the theater not on the 4th. Therefore, there is no general hospital in Japan 4 and 42 of the rooms and beds. Who do not want to lie "dead" is dead upper beds. Taboo phone users with "42", not the general prison cell on the 4th. "13" is the number of taboo, and many hotels do not "13" floors and "13" room, there is no Haneda Airport "13" No. apron. And "9" and the pronunciation of "bitterness" is similar and, therefore, the list of taboo. Hong Kong and Macao compatriots, overseas Chinese in Guangdong also忌用"4" to do signs, in the face of the non-said "4" when not on the "double-double" or "two two" instead.   

此外,西方的死亡,因为战争的恐怖,但也忌讳“3”,尤其是在点烟器,第三人点的时候,他们往往不愿意表面,而有些人甚至有所下降。
在非洲,大多数国家的观点,即奇彩负,而在日本,而奇数的是硬币的一面,看到复兴的吉祥数字,甚至没有利息。日本有许多禁忌,如,甚至一些谐音字列表的语言禁忌,如数字“4”相同的发音和死亡,“42的发音模具形状的动词,意味着厄运和不幸。在日常生活中4,剧院在4送礼品。因此,有没有一般医院在日本442的房间和病床。谁不想说谎,死了上张病床。禁忌“42”的手机用户,而不是一般的牢房第4“13”忌讳的数量,很多酒店都没有“13”楼层和“13”的房间,有没有羽田机场“13”号停机坪。“9”字的读音是相似的,因此,禁忌之列。港澳同胞,海外华人在广东也忌用“4”做标志,当不上双双二二,而不是在面对非说:“4”

 

 

(2) Color taboo:

       Different countries and peoples to have different color preferences and taboos, such as the Japanese anti-green, not as auspicious, and a number of countries in Europe and Asia, green has been widely welcomed. Brazilians see the brown color of mourning for the death. Yellow忌用Syria and Pakistan. Egypt, the Belgian anti-blue, but in the Netherlands,娜威, Switzerland, Syria, Iraq and other countries, while blue is the color of love. Turks preferred plain,忌用color, is considered an ill omen. In some countries, for political or historical reasons, the use of color is also taboo. Such as Ireland忌用red, white, blue group (the British flag colors); Venezuela忌用red, green, tea, black and white (for the five major party); France, Belgium忌用dark green, because it is the Nazi uniform color, these two countries in the Second World War, the military occupation was Shearer, so people see a dark-green, generally showing the emotions disgust.     

色彩禁忌:
不同国家,不同民族有不同的颜色的喜好和禁忌,如日本防绿色,不作为吉祥,在欧洲和亚洲一些国家,绿色已经得到了广泛的欢迎。巴西人看到的棕色的死亡哀悼。黄忌用叙利亚和巴基斯坦。埃及,比利时反蓝色的,但在荷兰,娜威,瑞士,叙利亚,伊拉克和其他国家,而蓝色是爱情的颜色。土耳其人喜欢平淡,忌用颜色,被认为是凶兆。在一些国家,出于政治或历史的原因,色彩的运用也忌讳。如爱尔兰忌用红,白,蓝色组(英国国旗色),委内瑞拉忌用红,绿,茶,黑与白的5个主要政党,法国,比利时忌用深绿色,因为它是纳粹军服的颜色,这两个国家在第二次世界大战的军事占领是希勒,让人们看到了一个暗绿色,一般的情绪厌恶。

 

 

国家花卉禁忌

(3) Flower taboo:

       How beautiful and attractive flowers, which people feel the vigor and vitality up, but in a different country where the meaning of certain flowers also in understanding 'the difference. Such as tulips in Turkey is seen as a symbol of love, but the Germans did not think that it is the feelings of flowers. Orchid is a symbol of South-East Asia, while in Poland that is a passion flower. White lily of the Romans, it is a symbol of beauty and hope, and in the Persian people think it is the expression of innocence and virginity. Flowers in China, India, Thailand, Bangladesh, Egypt and other countries a very high rating, but in Japan is regarded as a symbol of the ominous does not matter to hold a memorial ceremony. Chrysanthemum is Japan's royal family occupation was Shearer, so people see a dark-green, generally showing the emotions disgust.

花卉禁忌:
如何漂亮和有吸引力的花朵,人们感受到的生机与活力起来,但在不同的国家,某些花的意思,也理解'的区别。如郁金香在土耳其被看作是爱情的象征,但德国人并没有认为这是花的感情。兰花是东南亚的象征,而在波兰是一个充满激情的花。白百合的罗马人,它是美丽和希望的象征,而在波斯的人认为它表达的清白和贞操。花卉在中国,印度,泰国,孟加拉国,埃及和其他国家了很高的评价,但在日本被视为一个不祥的象征不要紧,举行一个纪念仪式。菊花是日本皇室的职业是希勒,让人们看到了一个暗绿色,一般的情绪厌恶。

     (3) Flower taboo:

       How beautiful and attractive flowers, which people feel the vigor and vitality up, but in a different country where the meaning of certain flowers also in understanding 'the difference. Such as tulips in Turkey is seen as a symbol of love, but the Germans did not think that it is the feelings of flowers. Orchid is a symbol of South-East Asia, while in Poland that is a passion flower. White lily of the Romans, it is a symbol of beauty and hope, and in the Persian people think it is the expression of innocence and virginity. Flowers in China, India, Thailand, Bangladesh, Egypt and other countries a very high rating, but in Japan is regarded as a symbol of the ominous does not matter to hold a memorial ceremony. Chrysanthemum is Japan's royal family dedicated flowers, people have the utmost respect, but the chrysanthemum in Spain, Italy and Latin American countries were considered "spent demon," and the soul can only be used before the cemetery. In France, the yellow flowers that were seen as disloyal.

3)花卉禁忌:
如何漂亮和有吸引力的花朵,人们感受到的生机与活力起来,但在不同的国家,某些花的意思,也理解'的区别。如郁金香在土耳其被看作是爱情的象征,但德国人并没有认为这是花的感情。兰花是东南亚的象征,而在波兰是一个充满激情的花。白百合的罗马人,它是美丽和希望的象征,而在波斯的人认为它表达的清白和贞操。花卉在中国,印度,泰国,孟加拉国,埃及和其他国家了很高的评价,但在日本被视为一个不祥的象征不要紧,举行一个纪念仪式。菊花是日本皇室专用的花朵,人们有最崇高的敬意,但菊花在西班牙,意大利和拉美国家被认为是花恶魔的灵魂只能用于墓地前。在法国,黄色的花,被视为不忠。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Early African American: Jumping the Broom In the times of slavery in this country, African American couples were not allowed to formally marry and live together. To make a public declaration of their love and commitment, a man and woman jumped over a broom into matrimony, to the beat of drums. (The broom has long held significant meaning for the various Africans, symbolizing, the start of home- making for the newlywed couple. In Southern Africa, the day after the wedding, the bride assisted the other women in the family in sweeping the courtyard, indicating her dutiful willing ness to help her in-laws with housework till the newlyweds could move to their new home.) Some African-American couples today are choosing to include this symbolic rite in their wedding ceremony.

  Armenia: Two white doves may be released to signify love and happiness. The bride may dress in red silk and may wear cardboard wings with feathers on her head. Small coins may be thrown at her.

  Belgium: The bride may still embroider her name on her handkerchief, carry it on the wedding day, then frame it and keep it until the next family bride marries.

  Bermuda: Islanders top their tiered wedding cakes with a tiny sapling. The newlyweds plant the tree at their home, where they can watch it grow, as their marriage grows.

  Bohemia: The groom gives the bride a rosary, a prayer book, a girdle with three keys (to guard her virtue), a fur cap, and a silver wedding ring. The bride gives the groom a shirt sewn with gold thread blended with colored silks and a wedding ring. Before the ceremony, the groomsman wraps the groom in the bride's cloak to keep evil spirits from creeping in and dividing their two hearts.

  Caribbean: A rich black cake baked with dried fruits and rum is especially popular on the islands of Barbados, Grenada and St. Lucia. The recipe, handed down from mother to daughter, is embellished by each. It is considered a "pound" cake——with the recipe calling for a pound each of flour, dark brown sugar, butter, glace cherries, raisins, Prunes, currants, Plus a dozen eggs and flavorings. The dried fruits are soaked in rum and kept in a crock anywhere from two weeks to six months.

  Croatia: Married female relatives remove the bride's veil and replace it with a kerchief and apron, symbols of her new married status. She is then serenaded by all the married women. Following the wedding ceremony, those assembled walk three times around the well (symbolizing the Holy Trinity,) and throw apples into it (symbolizing fertility).

  The Czech Republic: Friends would sneak into the bride's yard to plant a tree, then deco rate it with ribbons and painted eggshells. Legend said she would live as long as the tree. Brides in the countryside carry on the very old custom of wearing a wreath of rosemary, which symbolizes remembrance. The wreath is woven for each bride on her wedding eve by her friends as a wish for wisdom, love, and loyalty.

  Egypt: Families, rather than grooms, propose to the bride. In Egypt, many marriages are arranged. The zaffa, or wedding march, is a musical procession of drums, bagpipes, horns, belly dancers, and men carrying flaming swords; it announces that the marriage is about to begin.

  England: Traditionally, the village bride and her wedding party always walk together to the church. Leading the procession: a small girl strewing, blossoms along the road, so the bride's path through life will always be happy and laden with flowers.

  早期非洲裔美国人:跳扫帚 在美国的黑奴时代,黑人男女是不允许正式结婚生活在一起的。为了向世人宣布他们的爱情和婚约,一对黑人男女和着鼓声的节奏,一起跳过一把扫帚。(扫帚对各种非洲人长期来都具有很重要的意义,因为它意味着新婚夫妇组成家庭的开始。在南部非洲,新娘在婚后的第一天要帮助夫家的其它女性清扫院子,以此表明在住进自己的新家前,她愿意尽职地帮助丈夫的家人承担家务劳动。)直至今日,一些美国黑人还在他们的婚礼上举行这种象征性的仪式。

  亚美尼亚:人们放飞两只白鸽,以示爱情和幸福。新娘穿著红色丝绸的服装,头戴饰有羽毛的纸翼。人们还可向新娘投掷硬币。

  比利时:新娘可以将其姓名绣在手帕上,在婚礼举行日随身带上它。婚礼后将手帕装入镜框保存,直到家里的另外一个姑娘结婚。

  百慕大:百慕大岛民在他们的多层婚礼蛋的顶层插上一株小树苗,新婚夫妇要将这株树苗种在家中,这样他们可以目睹树苗伴随着他们的婚姻一起长大。

  波黑人:新郎向新娘赠送一串念珠,一本祈祷文,一根上面串着三把钥匙的腰带(用以保护她的贞洁),一顶毛皮帽,一个银的结婚戒指。新娘则向新郎赠送一件用金线和彩色丝绸缝制的衬衣和结婚戒指。婚礼前,伴郎将新郎裹进新娘的斗篷里,以防恶魔侵入,拆散他们相爱的心。

  加勒比地区:在巴巴多斯,格林纳达和圣卢西亚,用干果和朗姆酒制作的味道浓郁的蛋十分常见。蛋的制作方法,由母亲亲手传给女儿,并且各自对其加以修饰。人们把这种蛋叫作一磅蛋,因为制作这种蛋?需要面粉、棕糖、黄油、糖霜樱桃、葡萄干、李子、红醋栗各一磅,加上一打鸡蛋和调味品。制作蛋的干果要在朗姆酒中浸泡并在瓦罐中保存两个星期至6个月。

  克罗地亚:由已婚的女性亲戚摘下新娘的面纱,换上一块头巾和一条围裙,意味着新娘的已婚新身份。然后由所有的已婚妇女为新娘唱小夜曲。婚礼之后,所有来宾围绕着井走三圈(象征着圣三位一体),并向井中扔苹果(象征着生育)。

  捷克共和国:朋友们溜进新娘的院子去种一棵树,然后再用彩带和彩绘的蛋壳将树加以装饰。传说新娘将与这树活得一样长。乡村的新娘还保留着佩带迷迭香花环的古老习俗,以表怀念之情。花环是在婚礼前夕由新娘的朋友编织而成,它象征着智能、爱情和忠诚。

  埃及:在埃及,由新郎的家人,而不是新郎本人,向新娘求婚。许多婚姻还是父母之命,媒妁之言。Zaffa,也就是婚礼,其实是一个充满音乐的列队游行,有鼓、风笛、号角及肚皮舞,男人们手持火红的剑。这个仪式宣告,婚姻即将开始。

  英格兰:按照传统,乡村的新娘和参加婚礼的人们总是一起步行走向教堂。一个小姑娘走在队列最前面,她一路抛撒鲜花,预示着新娘一生的道路上也将开满鲜花。



 
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